Battery Glossary

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About Battery …

Battery  Glossary?

Heavy Vehicle: It is the type of battery used in commercial vehicles such as trucks, buses, tractors. These are batteries that are powered for shock and difficult road conditions.

AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat Battery): These are powerful batteries that are produced by absorbing electrolytes developed for start-stop vehicles.

EFB (Enhanced Flooded Battery): Enhanced flooded batteries developed for start-stop vehicles

Air Mix: It is a system used in traction batteries. In batteries with the Airmix system, the air is pumped into the cells with the help of a special rectifier during charging, and the electrolyte is mixed and homogenized.

Current: Electric current describes the electrical power flowing through an electrical circuit. Its unit is “Ampere (A)”.

Active Material: Paste, which is a mixture of various chemicals and determines the capacity or starter power of the battery by creating a chemical reaction with the acid in the battery.

Battery: It is a device that stores electrical energy as chemical energy and when a receiver is connected to its circuit, it converts this energy back to electrical energy and gives it to the external circuit.

Battery Freezing: Although the definition of battery freezing is used in the market, it is actually the electrolyte inside, not the frozen battery. If the battery is in the discharged position, the freezing process will accelerate.

Battery depletion: It is the situation where the battery becomes inoperable, which is called battery depletion in the market. Most of the time, downtime due to loss of charge is perceived as a dead battery. After consulting an authorized service, the battery must be replaced if necessary.

Sub-connection: These are the retaining tabs on the lower part of the battery box. It is designed for connection to the vehicle table.

Ammeter: It is a device used to measure the current coming from the cable.

Over-Discharge: It is when the battery goes into over-discharging mode due to the user or the vehicle. It is the continuous current draw of the battery without being charged.

Overcharging (burn): It is the failure caused by the spillage and deformation of the active substance (paste) in the plates.

Acid Density: It is the measure of how to dilute the acid used as an electrolyte in the battery.

Maintenance Free: It is a battery that does not require maintenance (pure water is not required) under normal conditions.

Hydrometer: Density measurement instrument used to measure the electrolyte density in the battery.

Plug: It is a material made of acid-resistant polypropylene, designed to automatically discharge the gas released during battery charging.

CCA (Cold Cranking Current): It is current to run (vehicle engine) in cold.

COS: It is a welding machine that enables the connection of positive and negative electrodes in the battery cell.

Cycle Life: The number of charge-discharge cycles of a battery.

Double Cover: It is a second cover that is attached to the plug on the cover where the battery connects with the box to prevent leakage and to gain a fully closed feature.

Deep Discharge: It is the discharge of the battery to a voltage level lower than the minimum voltage level specified in the standards.

Discharge Current: It is the current drawn from the battery during the discharge process.

Discharge: It is the conversion of chemically stored energy in the battery into electrical energy and feeding a system.

Cycle: When a battery is charging and discharging.

Electrolyte: It is the form of pure acid diluted with pure water. Optimized for high cycle number, low corrosion, and maximum conductivity in batteries, the final density value is 1.285 g / cm ³ .

Electrode: It is a positive or negative ion charged plate that enables polarity to form in the battery.

Element Set: It is the name given to the paired positive and negative plates with envelope separators combined with lead welding.

Industrial Battery: It is the name given to batteries specially developed for industrial uses.

Energy: It is the ability to do work. In accordance with the working principle of the battery, it converts electrical energy into chemical energy and chemical energy into electrical energy.

Energy Density:  It is the amount of energy that the unit weight of a battery can give.

Exmet: It is a grid production type. Lead ingots are turned into strips and then they become a grid in the exmet machine using the pull-expand method.

Gas Expulsion: It is the process of throwing the gases emerging as a result of chemical reactions in the battery out of the battery.

Gas Discharge Hole: It is the evacuation way that allows the gases generated as a result of chemical reactions within the battery to be thrown out of the battery.

Gravity Casting: It is a casting technique applied by taking advantage of the force of gravity.

Grift Foam: It is the failure caused by the breakage of the pole head, tailstock, and element ear.

Silver Tin Alloy: It is an alloy formed by combining Silver and Tin elements in certain proportions. Increases corrosion resistance in battery grids.

Cell: It is the name given to the compartments in the battery box. There are 6 cells in total in 12V batteries. There is 2V electric current in each cell.

Grid: Lead skeleton on which the active substance is plastered, transmitting electric current.

Initial Charge: It is the charging process for the battery to reach the required voltage level after the battery assembly process is completed.

Indicator: It is a part that gives information about the electrolyte density of a single cell on the battery.

Gel: The electrolyte in the battery is in gel form instead of a liquid state after a special process.

Gel Battery: It is the name given to lead-acid battery with gelled electrolyte.

Remaining Capacity: It is the difference between the total capacity of the battery and its used capacity.

Cover: It is the part that is attached to the box during the assembly process and serves to isolate the components inside the battery from the external environment.

Closed System Cover: It is a cover system that does not allow external intervention to the battery.

Capacity: Defined in ampere-hours. It indicates the total power that can be drawn from a battery in ampere. The capacity of the battery depends on the surface area of ​​the plates, their number, and the permeability of the separators used.

Capacity Drop: It is the capacity value below the capacity specified on the battery label.

Self-Discharge: It is the decrease of capacity in the battery over time when the battery is not connected to any load.

Short Circuit: It is the failure caused by the contact of the positive and negative plates.

Conjecture: Connection equipment

Position: It refers to the location of the positive and negative terminals on the battery.

Corrosion: It is the failure that occurs as a result of waiting without charging for a long time or deep discharges, also called permanent sulfation.

Curing: It is the heat treatment applied to complete the chemical transformation of the plates inside the battery.

Lead:  Metal element with atomic number 82 and atomic mass 207.2 .

Lead Sulphate: It is the chemical compound that occurs during the discharge process.

Lead- Acid Battery: It is an energy storage system in which lead element is used as electrode and sulfuric acid is used as the electrolyte.

Box: It is the piece in the form of a plastic chamber that contains all the components of the battery.

Pole Head: It is the conductive part that provides the electrical connection of the battery with the systems around it.

Pole Head Protection Cover: It is the cover that keeps the pole head away from possible impacts from outside.

Starting Power: It is the discharge current specified in Amperes (A) that provides the 7.5V voltage that a fully charged battery reaches at the end of 10 seconds at -18.0 ° C. DIN, EN, IEC, SAE, JIS, TS, etc. It can be defined in such norms.

Central Gas Exhaust System: It is a system that allows the gases coming out of the cells to be collected and discharged over a single route.

Negative Electrode: It is a negatively charged plate.

Negative Plate: It is a negatively charged electrode.

Nominal Voltage: It is the voltage level specified on the battery label.

Oxidation: It is the chemical reaction of lead metal at the battery terminals with oxygen and corroding.

Lifetime: It is the period of time that the expected performance of the battery is achieved.

Parallel Connection: Batteries can be connected in parallel during the rectifier charging process. In a parallel connection, the currents must be added up and the rectifier must be adjusted. (This situation is not recommended) The serial binding should be done.

Paste: Dough that is plastered on plates as a result of a mixture of chemical substances.

Explosion: Hydrogen gas in the battery, arc, etc. It is a malfunction caused by damage to the box-cover.

Plate: A skeletal structure that is predominantly lead on which the active substance is smeared.

Polarity: Polarization

Positive Electrode: It is a positively charged plate.

Positive Pole Head: It is the pole in the battery to which the positive plates are connected.

Positive Plate: It is a positively charged electrode.

Shelf Life: The time a battery can spend on the shelf without needing to be recharged.

Rectifier: Battery Charger

Pure Water (Bee-water): It is a compound with a density of 1 g / cm ³, consisting of 2 hydrogens and 1 oxygen atom, without any elements or ions.

Handle: It is the part that is used to carry the battery.

Separator: PE, PVC, Glassmat, AGM material that prevents negative and positive plates from contacting each other and forming a short circuits.

Series Connection: Batteries can be connected in series in the process of rectifier charging. In a series connection, the voltages should be added up and the rectifier should be adjusted.

Standard Capacity (Ah): It is the capacity value specified on the battery label.

Start-Stop: The start-stop system is a system that helps prevent energy loss by automatically turning off the ignition when your vehicle stops at heavy traffic or at traffic lights and starting it again when the driver presses the clutch.

Stationary: Batteries used in fixed facilities.

Sulfation: collecting sulfate ion battery wherein the electrolyte contained in the plate surface comprising the result is failure.

Charge Current: The current value suitable for charging the battery.

Charge Status: It is the parameter that shows the amount of energy stored by the battery.

Charging: It is the process of storing electrical energy as chemical energy by feeding the battery with an electrical source.

Fully Maintenance Free: It is a type of battery that does not require external intervention.

Full Framed Plate: It is a type of grid surrounded by a lead alloy frame on all four sides.

Terminal type: It expresses the dimensional difference of positive and negative terminals in batteries.

Tractioner: It is an industrial battery type used in mobile systems.

Valve: It is the material used to regulate the gas output during the operation of the battery.

Voltage: Electrically, for current to travel in a circuit there must be electrical pressure between terminals. This is called the POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE or the interpolar VOLTAGE. Its unit is “VOLT (V)”.

Voltage Drop: It is the voltage loss experienced in the battery.

Voltmeter: It is the instrument used for measuring the voltage of the battery.

VRLA: Lead-acid accumulator regulated by a valve

Aging: It is the phase change process of the lead parts in the battery depending on time.

Density: It is the mass per unit volume.

High Current Discharge: It is to discharge the battery with a current higher than the discharge value specified on the battery label.

High Current Charge: It is to charge the battery with a value higher than the recommended charge current value.

What is the Battery? How Does It Work?

The battery is equipment that stores electrical power in the form of chemical energy and gives it back in case of need. The task of the battery gives electric current to the starter motor for the first time to work, to send current to the receivers when the vehicle engine is not working. The other task of the battery provides a balance between voltage and amperage in the electric system when the engine operates and thus to prevent the receivers from damage as a result of high voltage that the alternator may generate at high speeds. In such cases, the battery takes over some of the current generated by the alternator and prevents overvoltage.

How to Jump Start a Battery?
  • Make sure that the battery you use for connection of one battery to another is of the same amperage.
  • Switch off the engine and all electrical components.
  • First, the red cable end is connected to the (+) terminal of the discharged battery; then the other end is connected to the terminal of the charged battery.
  • And then the black cable end is connected to the terminal (-) of the charged battery and the other end of the cable is connected to any metal part of the vehicle having the discharged battery.
  • Make sure the cables do not contact with any moving or hot things such as exhaust and impeller.
  • And start the vehicle with the charged battery first, and then start the vehicle with the discharged battery.
  • After the cars start, you may remove the jumper cables, starting with the vehicle with the discharged battery.
Why Does Battery Discharge?

Possible reasons for discharge for GEP Batteries you bought:

  • Adverse environmental and storage conditions, high temperature, humidity, etc.
  • Leak currents on the car (currents drawn more than the anticipated short circuits), open lights
  • Short circuits on other electric equipment and components
  • Mismatch of the vehicle and battery; selection of small battery; additional onboard vehicle components (audio, light, computer systems, cooling systems)
  • The insufficient charge generated by the alternator (charging generator)
Are Batteries Harmful to the Environment?

Batteries have consisted of lead, sulfuric acid solution, and polypropylene box. For this reason, when batteries become unusable, they are risky and hazardous waste for the environment. However, an effective recycling system makes it possible to recover the polypropylene box and lead components of the batteries. Although it is also possible to recover sulfuric acid, it is mostly preferred to neutralize it.

How to Install Battery?

Selection and Installation of Battery

Select the battery you desire properly according to the vehicle from the lists given in our catalog indicating characteristics of the batteries. Sizes, cold cranking current, and capacity values are important selection criteria. Activate the dry charged batteries according to the method given above and, if required, charge them.

In the case of flooded batteries stored, when the average daily temperature is less than 4°C, if the open-circuit voltage is 12.50 V and less, then recharge it according to the method given above.

If the ambient temperature is high and the open-circuit voltage is 12.40 or less, recharge it according to the method given above.

Mark the cables as +/- before you remove the old battery in order to connect the new battery correctly.

Measure the voltage value and direction of the battery to make sure it is correct; check the cable connections and battery stand carefully and clean them. Place the new battery and make the connections and tighten.

Firstly, connect the positive (+) cable. Secondly, connect the negative (-) earthed cable. Tighten carefully. As overtightening may damage the posts, be careful especially when you tighten the battery posts from sideways.

Cover the posts and cable ends by an anti-corrosive agent.